International Humanitarian Law (IHL), otherwise known by its less palatable label as, for example, the law of war, has a co-natural relation to international (in)security since it regulates conducts in wars. Although relatively recent and anchored in the Solferino effect, history provides much earlier examples of humanitarian condiments in the jus in bello. IHL walks along with human dignity.

Some topics to be addressed: IHL history, concept, context, relationship with other international laws; IHL sources, scope, principles and rules, namely the Geneva conventions. The Red cross/Red crescent – actor and concretizer.

IHL challenges and perspectives – Technological advances, e.g. AI, evolution and sedimentation of the individual in international law, televised wars as catalyst of global awareness, a permanent member of the UNSC waging war with disregard of international law, including IHL, the human tragedies in Gaza and in Israel purporting utter disrespect for IHL: A «perfect storm» for security and international law issues.


I – Contexts and concepts of International Humanitarian Law
  •  First approach and history in a nutshell – main epochs of IHL from Procopius to Solferino to Geneva(s) to Ukraine and Gaza
  • Continuation: IHL is facing its Regina Viarum and so: Quo Vadis? From (Cicero) Silent enim lēgēs inter arma to Inter Arma Caritas, to what? Is there an Acquis Humanitaire?
  • International Humanitarian Law: nature, a definition, philosophy, purposes and a context – it is public international law and it operates in times of war (but what wars?)
  • Idem: International Humanitarian Law (IHL), Law of War (LoW) jus in bello, or the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC): can all these today equally well be called IHL? A myth in words and labels?


II – IHL and other International Law norms
  • Humanization of International Law – v.g., International Humanitarian Law, International Human Rights Law, International Criminal Law
  • Idem: a comprehensive perspective of International Law and of the Individual in international law and in international community
  • In particular: the relationships and borders between International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights


III – IHL sources, scope, principles and rules
  •  Sources of IHL – v.g., Geneva Conventions, customary international law – and a description of the IHL legal system and cardinal solutions
  • Scope and geography of IHL application – some issues and some challenges as to when IHL applies
  • The humans entitled to protection – v.g., civilians, non-combatants, prisoners of war, wounded and sick soldiers, humanitarian workers
  • The subjects bound by IHL – v.g., States, non-state armed groups, fighters (in general)
  • Basic tenets of IHL and what is imposed by IHL – obligation of humane treatment, prohibition on adverse distinction, protection of persons in detention
  • Basic principles governing the use of force in situations of armed conflict – The principle of distinction protecting civilians from attack, The prohibition on indiscriminate attacks, Proportionality, Precautions in attack, Precautions against the effects of attacks
  • The legal rules of IHL regarding occupation
  • The aftermath: How can states and individuals be held accountable for violations of IHL?


IV – Major actors of IHL: The Red cross/Red crescent – actor and concretizer
  •  The role and relevance of the IC Red Cross/Red Crescent: an introduction and some issues
  • Continuation: The IC Red Cross/Red Crescent as a main actor and concretizer in IHL


V – Challenges and perspectives
  • A brief on challenges and perspectives of IHL – Can it survive as Law proper?
  • Tensions between Law and Security.
  • (Some) Challenges: Emerging technologies and responsibilities under IHL, in particular the use of AI. Protection of animals in times of war. Protection of cultural sites in times of war. Environmental protection in times of war.
  • A helping hand from International Human Rights Law and courts?
  • International criminal law and international courts another helping hand?



導師: Mr. Paulo Cardinal
日期:2024年05月13日 至 2024年05月31日
時間: 週一、五 19:00 – 21:00
課時: 16小時(共8節)
地點: 聖若瑟大學青洲校舍
語言: 英語授課
模式: 面授教學
學費: 澳門幣 2,780
對象: 有興趣人士及法律範疇從業人員
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